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Formerly Journal of Turgut Ozal Medical Center - ISSN 1300-1744

  • Annals of Medical Research

    Annals of Medical Research International Monthly Published Medical Journal

  • Annals of Medical Research

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  • Annals of Medical Research

    Annals of Medical Research indexed in TÜBİTAK/ULAKBİM Tıp Veri Tabanı

  • Annals of Medical Research

    Annals of Medical Research indexed in

  • Annals of Medical Research
  • Annals of Medical Research
  • Annals of Medical Research
  • Annals of Medical Research

Dear readers,

Our journal is the official publication of Inonu University Medical Faculty and published uninterruptedly for 25 years. It was first published as the name of Inonu University Medical Journal and later as Journal of Turgut Ozal Medical Center. During its publication period, the journal accepted Turkish or English articles for publication.

Abstracting in an international index is just a paramount objective in the 25th year of the journal. Because of this goal, it was necessary to make a decision both in terms of journal name and publication language. It was important in this respect that the name of a general medical journal should be related to medicine again and it should be in English. For these reasons, the name of the journal was switched to Annals of Medical Research and its publication language is changed to in English. The logo of the journal was chosen as an apricot, which is the symbol of our city Malatya, the world capital of apricot. I hope the journal succeeds with its new name. Annals of Medical Research is published monthly.



Evaluation of the compatibility of phenotypic and molecular methods used to determine carbapenem resistance in enterobacterales isolates (p.2107-11)

Evaluation of the compatibility of phenotypic and molecular methods used to determine carbapenem resistance in enterobacterales isolates (p.2107-11)

Yucel Duman, Irem Şik
Department of Medical Microbiology, Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey
Copyright © 2020 by authors and Annals of Medical Research Publishing Inc.


Aim: Carbapenems are one of the most important options for clinicians with few treatment options in the clinic due to their low side effects, rapid diffusion into tissues and use in all age groups. Therefore, it is important to be able to detect carbapenemase-producing isolates at an early stage for appropriate patient management and for infection prevention and control procedures. Antibiotic resistance genes and enzymes of microorganisms can be determined by phenotypic and molecular methods in clinical microbiology laboratories. Phenotypic methods are cheap, easy and easy to repeat but determination of resistance gene regions by molecular methods is costly, requires labour-experienced personnel and is time consuming. Determining whether the isolates possess the carbapenemase enzyme by phenotypic tests will provide convenience both for the patient and early initiation of the treatment and directing the clinician to the treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the compatibility of phenotypic methods (carbapenemase inactivation method and Rapidec Carba NP) and molecular methods (Polymerase Chain Reaction) used to determine carbapenem resistance in Enterobacterales isolates.
Material and Methods: Carbapenem resistant 60 and sensitive 20 Enterobacterales isolates were included in the study. E-test agar gradient diffusion, CIM, Rapidec Carba NP methods and PCR were studied. The agreement between the methods was determined by using the kappa (κ) coefficient with the cohen kappa analysis method.
Results: In carbapenem resistant isolates, meropenem MİK50 and MİK90 determined as 32µg/ml, 64µg/ml, imipenem MİK50 and MİK90 determined as 32µg/ml, 128µg/ml, respectively. OXA-48 was positive in 54 (90%) isolates and NDM-1 in 6 (10%) isolates. The susceptibility of the isolates with OXA-48 carbapenemase gene region was 94.4% by CIM test and 92.6% by Rapidec Carba NP test, respectively. When the Kappa coefficient was evaluated, a very good agreement was observed between both tests and OXA-48. However, in the isolates with NDM-1 gene region, no compliance with CIM test was observed but Rapidec Carba NP test showed very good agreement.
Conclusion: Rapid carbapenemase testing, such as Rapidec Carba NP and CIM, can play an important role in preventing the development of health-related outbreaks caused by carbapenemase-producing isolates, enabling faster prevention and control of infection.

Keywords: Enterobacterales; carbapenem; resistance; rapidec carba np; carbapenemase inactivation method 


doi: 10.5455/annalsmedres.2020.03.234


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Annals of Medical Research is the scientific official journal of the Inonu University Faculty of Medicine. It is published monthly. The essential aim of the Annals of Medical Research is to publish scientifically high quality clinical and experimental research articles on fields of medicine which can contribute to the literature data. In addition, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editors and manuscripts on publication ethics and medical history, which can contribute to the education and practices of physicians and health sector professionals within the scope of the journal’s target audience and which can increase the level of scientific communication between the authors and readers, are included in the scope of the journal.


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