The findings of corneal specular microscopy in patients with keratoconus
Nurdan Gamze Tasli1, Yucel Karakurt1, Turgay Ucak1, Erel Icel2, Sumeyye Burcu Agcayazi2, Adem Ugurlu2 , Yusuf Kemal Arslan3
1Erzincan Binali Yildirim University, Department of Ophthalmology, Erzincan, Turkey
2Erzincan Mengücek Gazi Hospıtal Department of Ophthalmology, Erzincan, Turkey
3Erzincan Binali Yildirim University, Faculty of Medicine Department of Biostatistics and Medical Information, Erzincan, Turkey
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of corneal endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation and hexagonal cell ratio with the stages of keratoconus and corneal thickness.
Material and Methods: The study included 102 eyes from 51 patients. The corneal topography was performed using the Sirius corneal topographic device and the examination of the endothelium was performed using Nidek CEM-530. The patients were divided into groups in accordance with keratometry values (group 1: K2<45 D, group 2: K2 45-52 D, group 3: K2> 52 D) and thinnest cornea thickness (group 1:> 450 µm, group 2: 400-450 µm, group 3: <400 µm). Specular microscopic findings were compared according to the severity of keratoconus and corneal thickness.
Results: Of the patients, 29 (50%) were male and 22 (50%) were female. The mean age was 29.8 ± 7.7 (15-45) years. Endothelial cell count and hexagonal cell ratio were significantly lower in severe keratoconus compared to mild and moderate keratoconus and the coefficient of variation was higher in severe keratoconus compared to the other groups (p <0.001). When the patients were compared according to the pachymetry value at the thinnest point of the cornea, the endothelial cell number and the hexagonal cell ratio were found to be lower in the group with pachymetry less than 400 µm (p <0.001). The coefficient of variation was higher in the same group compared to the others (p <0.001).
Conclusion: It was revealed that endothelial cell density, hexagonal cell ratio decreased and the coefficient of variation increased with the progression of keratoconus. Specular microscopic examinations in patients with keratoconus provide important data in addition to topography.